The difference of burden of ectopic beats in different types of atrial fibrillation and the effect of atrial fibrillation type on stroke risk in a prospective cohort of patients with atrial fibrillation (CODE-AF registry)

Seunghoon Cho, Jun Kim, Jin Bae Kim, Junbeom Park, Jin Kyu Park, Ki Woon Kang, Jaemin Shim, Eue Keun Choi, Young Soo Lee, Hyung Wook Park, Boyoung Joung

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6 Citations (Scopus)


The relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF) type and stroke risk is still controversial. We investigated the difference of burden of atrial ectopic beats in different types of AF and the effect of the AF type on stroke risk in patients with non-valvular AF. In the prospective, multicenter observational registry with more than about 10,000 AF patients, 8883 non-valvular AF patients (mean age, 67.0 years; 36% were women) with eligible follow-up visits participated. We compared the burden of ectopic beats and stroke risk between patients with paroxysmal AF (n = 5,808) and non-paroxysmal AF (n = 3,075). The patients with a non-paroxysmal type of AF were older, male-predominant and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities and had more anticoagulation and rhythm control treatment than those with paroxysmal AF. In terms of the difference in burden of ectopic beats, patients with non-paroxysmal AF had a higher proportion of atrial premature beats (APBs) (paroxysmal vs. non-paroxysmal, median 3% vs. 5%; p = 0.001) in 24 hours Holter monitoring. During a median follow-up period of 16.8 months (Interquartile range [IQR], 11.67–20.52), a total of 82 (0.92%) patients experienced ischemic stroke with incidence rates of 0.50 and 1.09 events per 100 person-year for paroxysmal and non-paroxysmal AF, respectively. The cumulative incidence of stroke events was significantly higher in non-paroxysmal AF than in paroxysmal AF (p < 0.001). The risk of ischemic stroke was higher in non-paroxysmal AF with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 2.08 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33–3.25; p = 0.001) than in paroxysmal AF. The type of AF was associated with an increased risk of stroke, along with the difference of burden of ectopic beats (specially in APBs) in different types of AF. These results suggest that the type of AF should be considered in stroke prevention and decision-making for oral anticoagulation in AF patients.

Original languageEnglish
Article number6319
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The registry was funded by the National Evidence-Based Healthcare Collaborating Agency and designed and coordinated by the Korea Heart Rhythm Society, which provides support to related committees, national coordinators, and participating centers. Data are entered into a common electronic database that limits inconsistencies and errors and provides online help for key variables. Each center can see its own data and data from all other participating centers17,28. The study was approved by the ethics committee of each center, and all patients provided informed consent for their inclusion. The study was conducted in compliance with the ethical rules of the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects by The World Medical Association. We followed the ethical, scientific and medical standards that protect the rights of participants and we required informed consent from all study participants, and the review and approval of study protocols, including patient information forms, by ethics committees.

Funding Information:
This study was supported by research grants from the Korean Healthcare Technology R&D project funded by the Ministry of Health & Welfare (HI15C1200, HC19C0130).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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