Silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (Si-SPADs) fabricated with standard CMOS technology and providing the advantages of low noise, low cost, and compatibility with additional circuits are promising candidates for single-photon detection fields. The guard ring is a key component of SPADs, which prevents premature edge breakdown and improves the electric field distribution to the intended multiplication region. The choice of proper physical dimensions, especially the active radius (AR) and the size of the guard ring, is important for the better performance of Si-SPADs. In this paper, a Si-SPAD with a deep virtual guard ring fabricated through deep well diffusion is proposed and the effect of the physical variation of the AR and guard ring width on the device characteristics is investigated. In addition, the effect of physical variation on the device characteristics is analyzed and explained by means of technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received April 2, 2019; revised April 17, 2019; accepted April 25, 2019. Date of publication May 9, 2019; date of current version June 19, 2019. This work was supported in part by the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy through Industrial Technology Innovation Program [the development of a 50-m range Time of Flight (ToF) CMOS sensor, an optical system, and signal processing for automotive] under Grant 10063634 and in part by the Institute of BioMed-IT, Energy-IT and Smart-IT Technology (BEST), Yonsei University through Brain Korea 21-Plus Program. The EDA tool was supported by the IC Design Education Center (IDEC), Seoul, South Korea. The review of this paper was arranged by Editor C. Surya. (Corresponding author: Ilgu Yun.) The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722, South Korea (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org).
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All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering