The effect of adherence to high-quality dietary pattern on COVID-19 outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Masoud Rahmati, Rouholah Fatemi, Dong Keon Yon, Seung Won Lee, Ai Koyanagi, Jae Il Shin, Lee Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Dietary quality and patterns may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection and outcomes, but scientific data and evidence to support such a role are lacking. Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to elucidate the effect of prepandemic diet quality on the risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. PubMed/MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Scopus, and EMBASE were systematically searched for articles published up to September 1, 2022. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to calculate each outcome's risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies including 4 023 663 individuals (3 149 784 high-quality diet individuals and 873 881 controls) were included in the present meta-analysis. The effectiveness of high-quality dietary pattern against SARS-CoV-2 infection and hospitalization was 28% (95% CI 19%–36%) and 62% (95% CI 25%–80%); respectively. Subgroup analysis based on different levels of diet quality showed no difference between middle and high levels of diet quality in reducing the risk of COVID-19 infection. Interestingly, subgroup analysis based on the different types of high-quality diets and the risk of COVID-19 infection revealed that the effectiveness of plant-based diet against SARS-CoV-2 infection was 50% (95% CI 30%–65%); while the effectiveness of Mediterranean diet against SARS-CoV-2 infection was 22% (95% CI 12%–31%). Adherence to a high-quality dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of COVID-19 infection and hospitalization. More studies are required to confirm these findings, and future studies should determine the biological mechanisms underlying the association between diet quality and risk of COVID-19 infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere28298
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Volume95
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Jan

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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