Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cetirizine, a histamine 1 receptor antagonist, on bone remodeling after calvarial suture expansion. Methods: Sixty male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups; the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected no expansion group, cetirizine-injected no expansion group, PBS-injected expansion group, and cetirizine-injected expansion group, and were observed at 7, 14, and 28 days. Five rats per group were examined at each observation day. Daily injections of cetirizine or PBS were administered to the relevant groups starting 2 weeks prior to expander insertion. A rapid expander was inserted in the calvarial bone to deliver 100 cN of force to the parietal suture. The specimens were prepared for hematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. Suture opening and bone regeneration were evaluated using microcomputed tomography and bone histomorphometric analysis. Serum blood levels of osteocalcin and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX) were also evaluated. Results: TRAP-positive cell counts and CTX levels decreased while osteocalcin levels increased in the cetirizine-injected expansion group at observation day 28. In the expansion groups, the mineralized area gradually increased throughout the observation period. At day 28, the cetirizine-injected expansion group showed greater bone volume density, greater mineralized area, and narrower average suture width than did the PBS-injected expansion group. Conclusions: Cetirizine injection facilitated bone formation after suture expansion, mostly by suppressing osteoclastic activity. Histamine 1 receptor antagonists may aid in bone formation after calvarial suture expansion in the rat model. [Korean J Orthod 2020;50(1):42-51].
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