Objective: Cortical activation is one of the procedures to accelerate tooth movement by manipulating the cortical bone. In this study, the effect of cortical activation on orthodontic tooth movement was investigated clinically and histologically in the surrounding bony tissue. Materials and methods: In the lower and upper jaws of two beagle dogs, cortical activation was applied to the buccal and lingual side of the alveolar bone in the right jaw where 12 holes were made on each cortical plate 4 weeks after the extraction of all the second bicuspids while under deep anesthesia. All third bicuspids on both jaws were forced to move forward by a 150-g force using NiTi coil spring with/without guiding wire. The tooth movement was measured and the animals were killed after tooth movement. Results: Rapid initial tooth movement was apparent after cortical activation. However, after 6 months of cortical activation, the cell number and cellular activity of the surrounding periodontal tissue were decreased. Conclusions: This experiment showed that rapid initial tooth movement was apparent following the application of orthodontic force after cortical activation but the cellular activity and fibroblast structure were abnormal in the surrounding periodontal tissue.
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