The effect of lateral tectonic tilting on fluviodeltaic surficial and stratal asymmetries: Experiment and theory

Jessica Kopp, Wonsuck Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tectonic influence on deltas has long been recognized for its importance in morphodynamic and stratigraphic development. Here, we explore the control of lateral tectonic tilting on a prograding fluviodeltaic system through six laboratory experiments with a range of tilting rates. Basement tilting was applied along an axis that bisects the centre of the experimental delta, which forced uplift on one half of the basin and subsidence on the opposite half. In the experiments with lower tilting rates, the delta advanced faster in the direction of uplift due to the decline in relative base level. This slow uplift created truncated stratigraphic intervals that were dominated by active channel cut and fill. On the opposite side where subsidence occurred, the shoreline still prograded, but with decreased rates, while the delta topset was deposited thicker, alternating packages of fine and coarse sediments. The fluvial system was active uniformly across the delta in these slow tilting runs and produced asymmetry in shoreline planform geometries. In the experiments with higher titling rates, deposition quickly ceased on the uplift side and stacked conformable sequences of delta lobes on the subsidence side. The result was an overall lack of progradation in all directions. Progressively greater tilting rates used in these high tilting runs yielded steering of channels towards the direction with higher subsidence and developed even more asymmetrical stratal patterns. Characteristic tectonic and channel timescales applied to the experimental conditions prove to be good predictors of the fluviodeltaic planform and stratigraphic asymmetries. The deltaic asymmetry for the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) system is largely comparable to the experiments with timescale ratios similar to those estimated for the G-B system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)517-530
Number of pages14
JournalBasin Research
Volume27
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 1

Fingerprint

asymmetry
tectonics
subsidence
uplift
experiment
shoreline
timescale
morphodynamics
progradation
effect
fill
rate
geometry
basin
sediment

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology

Cite this

@article{ab647b80535448478b7db7f6f58e1821,
title = "The effect of lateral tectonic tilting on fluviodeltaic surficial and stratal asymmetries: Experiment and theory",
abstract = "Tectonic influence on deltas has long been recognized for its importance in morphodynamic and stratigraphic development. Here, we explore the control of lateral tectonic tilting on a prograding fluviodeltaic system through six laboratory experiments with a range of tilting rates. Basement tilting was applied along an axis that bisects the centre of the experimental delta, which forced uplift on one half of the basin and subsidence on the opposite half. In the experiments with lower tilting rates, the delta advanced faster in the direction of uplift due to the decline in relative base level. This slow uplift created truncated stratigraphic intervals that were dominated by active channel cut and fill. On the opposite side where subsidence occurred, the shoreline still prograded, but with decreased rates, while the delta topset was deposited thicker, alternating packages of fine and coarse sediments. The fluvial system was active uniformly across the delta in these slow tilting runs and produced asymmetry in shoreline planform geometries. In the experiments with higher titling rates, deposition quickly ceased on the uplift side and stacked conformable sequences of delta lobes on the subsidence side. The result was an overall lack of progradation in all directions. Progressively greater tilting rates used in these high tilting runs yielded steering of channels towards the direction with higher subsidence and developed even more asymmetrical stratal patterns. Characteristic tectonic and channel timescales applied to the experimental conditions prove to be good predictors of the fluviodeltaic planform and stratigraphic asymmetries. The deltaic asymmetry for the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) system is largely comparable to the experiments with timescale ratios similar to those estimated for the G-B system.",
author = "Jessica Kopp and Wonsuck Kim",
year = "2015",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/bre.12086",
language = "English",
volume = "27",
pages = "517--530",
journal = "Basin Research",
issn = "0950-091X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

The effect of lateral tectonic tilting on fluviodeltaic surficial and stratal asymmetries : Experiment and theory. / Kopp, Jessica; Kim, Wonsuck.

In: Basin Research, Vol. 27, No. 4, 01.08.2015, p. 517-530.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The effect of lateral tectonic tilting on fluviodeltaic surficial and stratal asymmetries

T2 - Experiment and theory

AU - Kopp, Jessica

AU - Kim, Wonsuck

PY - 2015/8/1

Y1 - 2015/8/1

N2 - Tectonic influence on deltas has long been recognized for its importance in morphodynamic and stratigraphic development. Here, we explore the control of lateral tectonic tilting on a prograding fluviodeltaic system through six laboratory experiments with a range of tilting rates. Basement tilting was applied along an axis that bisects the centre of the experimental delta, which forced uplift on one half of the basin and subsidence on the opposite half. In the experiments with lower tilting rates, the delta advanced faster in the direction of uplift due to the decline in relative base level. This slow uplift created truncated stratigraphic intervals that were dominated by active channel cut and fill. On the opposite side where subsidence occurred, the shoreline still prograded, but with decreased rates, while the delta topset was deposited thicker, alternating packages of fine and coarse sediments. The fluvial system was active uniformly across the delta in these slow tilting runs and produced asymmetry in shoreline planform geometries. In the experiments with higher titling rates, deposition quickly ceased on the uplift side and stacked conformable sequences of delta lobes on the subsidence side. The result was an overall lack of progradation in all directions. Progressively greater tilting rates used in these high tilting runs yielded steering of channels towards the direction with higher subsidence and developed even more asymmetrical stratal patterns. Characteristic tectonic and channel timescales applied to the experimental conditions prove to be good predictors of the fluviodeltaic planform and stratigraphic asymmetries. The deltaic asymmetry for the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) system is largely comparable to the experiments with timescale ratios similar to those estimated for the G-B system.

AB - Tectonic influence on deltas has long been recognized for its importance in morphodynamic and stratigraphic development. Here, we explore the control of lateral tectonic tilting on a prograding fluviodeltaic system through six laboratory experiments with a range of tilting rates. Basement tilting was applied along an axis that bisects the centre of the experimental delta, which forced uplift on one half of the basin and subsidence on the opposite half. In the experiments with lower tilting rates, the delta advanced faster in the direction of uplift due to the decline in relative base level. This slow uplift created truncated stratigraphic intervals that were dominated by active channel cut and fill. On the opposite side where subsidence occurred, the shoreline still prograded, but with decreased rates, while the delta topset was deposited thicker, alternating packages of fine and coarse sediments. The fluvial system was active uniformly across the delta in these slow tilting runs and produced asymmetry in shoreline planform geometries. In the experiments with higher titling rates, deposition quickly ceased on the uplift side and stacked conformable sequences of delta lobes on the subsidence side. The result was an overall lack of progradation in all directions. Progressively greater tilting rates used in these high tilting runs yielded steering of channels towards the direction with higher subsidence and developed even more asymmetrical stratal patterns. Characteristic tectonic and channel timescales applied to the experimental conditions prove to be good predictors of the fluviodeltaic planform and stratigraphic asymmetries. The deltaic asymmetry for the Ganges-Brahmaputra (G-B) system is largely comparable to the experiments with timescale ratios similar to those estimated for the G-B system.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84934790549&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84934790549&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/bre.12086

DO - 10.1111/bre.12086

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84934790549

VL - 27

SP - 517

EP - 530

JO - Basin Research

JF - Basin Research

SN - 0950-091X

IS - 4

ER -