Background: Recently, there has been much research done into the regenerative potential of materials used in oriental medicine. In several studies, evidence was found that these materials have an effect on bone regeneration. Among these materials, safflower seeds are of particular interest as they have been used for the treatment of blood stasis, bone fracture, and osteoporosis in traditional Korean medicine. In addition, they are known to have anti-inflammatory effects. The objective of this study is to evaluate the periodontal tissue regenerative effects of a bioabsorbable barrier membrane (polylactide glycolic acid electro-spun non-woven membrane) containing safflower seed extracts applied to surgically created 1-wall intrabony defects in beagle dogs. Methods: One-wall intrabony defects were surgically created bilaterally at the mesial and distal sides of the mandibular second premolars and mesial side of the fourth premolars. These defects were randomly assigned either to the surgical control group which received a flap operation only or to one of two experimental groups consisting of defects which received a guided tissue regenerative procedure with either a bioabsorbable membrane (PLGA) or a bioabsorbable membrane containing safflower seed extracts (SSE/PLGA). The dogs were sacrificed 8 weeks after the operation, and a comparative histological examination was done. Results: The new cementum formation was 2.49 ± 0.41 mm in the surgical control group, 3.22 ± 0.35 mm in the PLGA group, and 3.67 ± 0.82 mm in the SSE/PLGA group. The extent of new cementum formation in barrier groups was significantly different from the surgical control group (P <0.05). The amount of intrabony cementum was 1.75 ± 0.06 mm, 2.40 ± 0.33 mm, and 2.70 ± 0.81 mm for the surgical control group, the PLGA group, and the SSE/PLGA group, respectively; the amount of infrabony cementum in the barrier groups was significantly different from the surgical control group (P <0.05). The value of the suprabony cementum was 0.73 ± 0.48 mm, 0.82 ± 0.21 mm, and 0.97 ± 0.09 mm for the surgical control group, the PLGA group, and the SSE/PLGA group, respectively, with no significant differences being observed among the treatments. The amount of new alveolar bone formation was 1.74 ± 0.25 mm, 2.36 ± 0.30 mm, and 2.64 ± 0.74 mm for the surgical control group, the PLGA group, and the SSE/PLGA group, respectively, with a significant difference exhibited between the surgical control group and other groups (P <0.05). Superficial root resorption was often observed, but ankylosis was not present. Conclusion: Our results suggest that surgical application of polylactide glycolic acid non-woven membrane with or without safflower seed extract could promote the regeneration of alveolar bone and cementum in intrabony periodontal defects.
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