Background and Objective: The therapeutic role of systematic lymph node dissection (LND) remains unclear in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), especially during interval debulking surgery (IDS) performed after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). We analyzed the therapeutic and prognostic roles of systematic LND in advanced EOC patients. Methods: Data from consecutive patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIIC-IV disease, who underwent optimal IDS (<1cm) after NAC, were obtained via a retrospective chart review. Patients were classified into a lymph node sampling (LNS; node count <20) group and an LND (node count ≥20) group. Results: Among 133 study patients, 65 and 68 underwent LND and LNS, respectively, during IDS. Overall survival (OS) was significantly better in the LND group than in the LNS group. In subgroup analysis with negative lymphadenopathy on preoperative imaging, progression-free survival (PFS) and OS were significantly better in the LND group than in the LNS group. Follow-up of subsequent recurrences showed significantly lower nodal and peritoneal recurrence rates among patients who underwent LND. Multivariate analysis identified LND as an independent prognostic factor for PFS and OS. Conclusion: Systematic LND may have therapeutic value in advanced EOC patients treated with NAC and IDS.
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