The global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of pediatric new-onset type 1 diabetes and ketoacidosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Masoud Rahmati, Maryam Keshvari, Shahrzad Mirnasuri, Dong K. Yon, Seung W. Lee, Jae Il Shin, Lee Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Viral infections may increase the risk of developing type 1 diabetes (T1D), and recent reports suggest that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) might have increased the incidence of pediatric T1D and/or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Therefore, this meta-analysis aims to estimate the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. A systematic search of MEDLINE/PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and EMBASE was conducted for articles published up to March 2022. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed to compare the relative risk of T1D and DKA among pediatric patients with T1D between the COVID-19 pre-pandemic and pandemic periods. We also compared glucose and HbA1c values in children who were newly diagnosed with T1D before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. The global incidence rate of T1D in the 2019 period was 19.73 per 100 000 children and 32.39 per 100 000 in the 2020 period. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic, the number of worldwide pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 9.5%, 25%, and 19.5%, respectively. Compared with pre-COVID-19 pandemic levels, the median glucose, and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic increased by 6.43% and 6.42%, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly increased the risk of global pediatric new-onset T1D, DKA, and severe DKA. Moreover, higher glucose and HbA1c values in newly diagnosed T1D children after the COVID-19 pandemic mandates targeted measures to raise public and physician awareness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5112-5127
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Medical Virology
Volume94
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Virology
  • Infectious Diseases

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