Morning hypertension is an important clinical target in the management of hypertension for perfect 24-h blood pressure (BP) control. Morning hypertension is generally categorized into two types: “morning surge” type and “sustained nocturnal and morning hypertension” type. The “morning surge” type is characterized by an exaggerated morning blood pressure surge (MBPS), and the “sustained nocturnal and morning hypertension” type with continuous hypertension from nighttime to morning (non-dipper/riser type). They can be detected by home and ambulatory blood pressure measurements (HBPM and ABPM). These two forms of morning hypertension both increase the risk of cardiovascular and renal diseases, but may occur via different pathogenic mechanisms and are associated with different conditions. Morning hypertension should be treated to achieve a morning BP level of < 135/85 mmHg, regardless of the office BP. The second target morning BP levels is < 125/75 mmHg for high-risk patients with morning hypertension and concomitant diseases. Morning hypertension is more frequently found in Asians, than in Westerners. Thus, the management of morning hypertension is especially important in Asia. The detection of morning hypertension and the individual home BP-guided treatment approach targeting morning BP in combination with ABPM, and the optimal treatment of morning hypertension would reduce cardiovascular events in Asia.
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Journal of Clinical Hypertension|
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Sept|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
K Kario reports research grant from A&D, Omron Healthcare, Fukuda Denshi, Otsuka Pharmaceutical, Otsuka Holdings, CureApp, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Daiichi Sankyo, MSD, Astellas Pharma, Eisai, Taisho Pharmaceutical, Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma, Teijin Pharma, Boehringer Ingelheim Japan, Fukuda Lifetec, Bristol‐Myers Squibb, Mochida Pharmaceutical, Roche Diagnostics; Consulting fees from A&D, JIMRO, Omron Healthcare, CureApp, Kyowa Kirin, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho, Terumo, Fukuda Denshi, Mochida Pharmaceutical; Honoraria from Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Omron Healthcare, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis Pharma, Mylan EPD; Participation in Advisory Board of Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis Pharma, Fukuda Denshi, outside the submitted work. YC Chia has received unrestricted educational grants from Viatris and Omron and from Medtronic for activities of the Malaysian Society for World Action on Salt, Sugar and Health (MyWASSH) YC Chia also has received speaker honoraria from Medtronic, Astra‐Zeneca, Omron and Xepa‐Sol. Y Li reports having received research grants from A&D, Bayer, Omron, Salubris, and Shyndec and lecture fees from A&D, Omron, Servier, Salubris and Shyndec. S Siddique has received honoraria from Bayer, Getz Pharma, Novartis, Pfizer, ICI, and Servier; and travel, accommodation, and conference registration support from Hilton Pharma, Atco Pharmaceutical, Highnoon Laboratories, Horizon Pharma and ICI. S Park has received honorarium from Pfizer, Beatrice, Boryoung, Hanmi, Daewoong, Donga, Celltrion, Servier, Daiichi Sankyo, and Daewon. S.P. also has received research grant from Daiichi Sankyo. All other authors have no conflicts of interest to declare.
Editorial assistance was made by Ayako Okura, Jichi Medical University (Tochigi, Japan). The authors thank Viatris and Sunway University for the grant to support the HOPE Asia Network writing activity.
© 2022 The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine