Epidemiologic studies have consistently demonstrated an increased risk of cardiovascular disease during colder temperatures. Hemodynamic changes associated with cold temperature and an increase in thrombogenicity may both account for the increase in cardiovascular risk and mortality. Studies using both in-office and out-of-office BP measurements have consistently shown an elevation in BP during the colder seasons. The large difference in BP between cold and warm months may increase the incidence of hypertension and reduce the hypertension control rate, potentially resulting in increased cardiovascular risk, especially among those at risk of cardiovascular disease. The current trends in global warming and climate change may have a profound impact on the epidemiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disease, as changes in the climate may significantly affect both BP variability and cardiovascular disease, especially in those with high cardiovascular risk and the elderly. Furthermore, climate change could have a significant influence on hypertension in Asia, considering the unique characteristics of hypertensive patients in Asia. As an increase in ambient temperature decreases the mean daytime average and morning surge in BP, but increases the nocturnal BP, it is difficult to predict how environmental changes will affect the epidemiology and prognosis of hypertension in the Asian-Pacific region. However, these seasonal variations in BP could be minimized by adjusting the housing conditions and using anticipation medicine. In this review, we discuss the impact of seasonal variation in the ambient temperature on hypertension and cardiovascular disease and discuss how this may impact the epidemiology of hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
S Park has received honoraria from Pfizer, Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Daewon pharmaceutical company, Boryung pharmaceutical company and Servier. K Kario received research grants from Omron Healthcare, Fukuda Denshi, A&D, Pfizer Japan, and honoraria from Omron Healthcare. S Siddique has received honoraria from Bayer, Novartis, Pfizer, ICI, and Servier; and travel, accommodation and conference registration support from Atco Pharmaceutical, Highnoon Laboratories, Horizon Pharma, ICI, Pfizer and CCL. YC Chia has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend conferences and CME seminars from Abbott, Bayer, Boehringer Ingelheim, GlaxoSmithKline, Menarini, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis, Orient Europharma, Pfizer, and Sanofi; and a research grant from Pfizer. J Nailes has received research grants from Pfizer. J Shin has received honoraria and sponsorship to attend seminars from Daiichi Sankyo, Takeda, Menarini, MSD, Bristol‐Myers Squibb, and Sanofi. CH Chen has served as an advisor or consultant for Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; has served as a speaker or a member of a speakers bureau for AstraZeneca; Pfizer Inc; Bayer AG; Bristol‐Myers Squibb Company; Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc; Daiichi Sankyo, Inc; Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation; SERVIER; Merck & Co., Inc; Sanofi; TAKEDA Pharmaceuticals International; and has received grants for clinical research from Microlife Co., Ltd. J Sison has received honoraria from Pfizer, AstraZeneca, AmGen, Boehringer Ingelheim, and Novartis. GP Sogunuru has received a research grant related to hypertension monitoring and treatment from Pfizer. JG Wang has received research grants from Bayer, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, and Phillips; and lecture and consulting fees from Bayer, Daiichi‐Sankyo, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Pfizer, Servier and Takeda. TD Wang has received honoraria from Abbott, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Daiichi Sankyo, Eli Lilly, Medtronic, Menarini, Novartis, Omron, Pfizer, Sanofi, and Servier. YQ Zhang has received research grants from Bayer, Novartis, and Shuanghe; and lecture fees from Bayer, Daiichi Sankyo, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Servier, and Takeda. All other authors report no potential conflicts of interest in relation to this article.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine