Background/Aims: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and modified RECIST (mRECIST) criteria have been used to assess treatment responses for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. We investigated which criteria provides better survival predictions in HCC patients treated with transarterial radioembolization (TARE). Methods: In total, 102 patients with unresectable intrahepatic HCC, who were treated with TARE between 2012 and 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. The treatment response after TARE was evaluated at 1, 3, and 6 months by the mRECIST and RECIST 1.1. Responders were defined as patients with complete or partial responses by each criterion. Results: The median age of 83 men and 19 women was 64.3 years. The median alpha-fetoprotein and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin levels were 37.1 ng/mL and 1,780.0 mAU/mL, respectively. The median maximal tumor size was 8.3 cm, and multiple tumors were observed in 36 patients (35.3%). During the follow-up period (median, 20.7 months), 21 patients (20.6%) died, with a mean survival time of 55.5 months. The cumulative survival rate was 96.1% at 6 months and 89.3% at 12 months. Responders, defined by the mRECIST at 1, 3, and 6 months after TARE, showed better survival outcomes than nonresponders (hazard ratio [HR]=5.736, p=0.008 at 1 month; HR=3.145, p=0.022 at 3 months, and HR=2.887, p=0.061 at 6 months). The survival rates of responders and nonresponders defined by the RECIST 1.1 were similar (all p>0.05). Conclusions: Response evaluations that use the mRECIST provide more accurate prognoses than those that use the RECIST 1.1 in HCC patients treated with TARE.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program, through the National Research Foundation of Korea, and was funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning (grant number: 2016R1A1A1A05005138).
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