The NewHorizon simulation - To bar or not to bar

J. Reddish, K. Kraljic, M. S. Petersen, K. Tep, Y. Dubois, C. Pichon, S. Peirani, F. Bournaud, H. Choi, J. Devriendt, R. Jackson, G. Martin, M. J. Park, M. Volonteri, S. K. Yi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We use the NewHorizon simulation to study the redshift evolution of bar properties and fractions within galaxies in the stellar masses range Mz.ast; = 107.25-1011.4M⊙ over the redshift range of z = 0.25-1.3. We select disc galaxies using stellar kinematics as a proxy for galaxy morphology. We employ two different automated bar detection methods, coupled with visual inspection, resulting in observable bar fractions of fbar = 0.070+0.018-0.012 at z ∼1.3, decreasing to fbar = 0.011+0.014-0.003 at z ∼0.25. Only one galaxy is visually confirmed as strongly barred in our sample. This bar is hosted by the most massive disc and only survives from z = 1.3 down to z = 0.7. Such a low bar fraction, in particular amongst Milky Way-like progenitors, highlights a missing bars problem, shared by literally all cosmological simulations with spatial resolution <100 pc to date. The analysis of linear growth rates, rotation curves, and derived summary statistics of the stellar, gas and dark matter components suggest that galaxies with stellar masses below 109.5-1010 M⊙ in NewHorizon appear to be too dominated by dark matter relative to stellar content to form a bar, while more massive galaxies typically have formed large bulges that prevent bar persistence at low redshift. This investigation confirms that the evolution of the bar fraction puts stringent constraints on the assembly history of baryons and dark matter on to galaxies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-185
Number of pages26
JournalMonthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022 May 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Oscar Agertz and Florent Renaud for stimulating discussions. This work was granted access to the HPC resources of CINES under the allocations c2016047637, A0020407637, and A0070402192 by Genci; KSC-2017-G2-0003 by KISTI; and as a 'Grand Challenge' project granted by GENCI on the AMD Rome extension of the Joliot Curie supercomputer at TGCC. This research is part of ANR Segal ANR-19-CE31-0017 ( http://secular-evolut ) and Horizon-UK projects. This work has made use of the Horizon cluster on which the simulation was post-processed, hosted by the Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris. We warmly thank S. Rouberol for running it smoothly. CP and KT thank J.B. Fouvry for numerous feedback. KK acknowledges support from the DEEPDIP project (ANR-19-CE31-0023). MSP acknowledges funding from a UK Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC) Consolidated Grant. SKY acknowledges support from the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF-2020R1A2C3003769). RJ acknowledges support from the Yonsei University Research Fund (Yonsei Frontier Lab), Young Researcher Supporting Program of 2021, and by the Korean National Research Foundation (NRF-2020R1A2C3003769). The supercomputing time for numerical simulation was kindly provided by KISTI (KSC-2017-G2-003), and large data transfer was supported by KREONET, which is managed and operated by KISTI.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s).

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science


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