The tubular-shaped nanostructure of TiO2 is very interesting, and highly ordered arrays of TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) can be easily fabricated by anodization of the Ti substrate in specific electrolytes. Here in this feature article, we review synthesis methods for various TNTs including normal, alloy, and architectural forms such as bamboos, lace, and flowers. Specific nanosize architectures such as bamboo and lace types can be regulated by alternating voltage and further anodizing. In order to extend light response of TNTs to visible solar spectra, various dopings of specific elements have been discussed. The normal and modified TNTs are suggested for applications such as dye sensitized solar cells, water splitting, photocatalytic degradation of pollutants, CO2 reduction, sensors, energy storage devices including Li ion batteries and supercapacitors, and other applications such as flexible substrate and biomaterials.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Surfaces, Coatings and Films
- Metals and Alloys
- Materials Chemistry