Renal artery stenosis may be a cause of hypertension and a potential contributor to progressive renal insufficiency. However, the prevalence of renal artery disease in a general population is poorly defined. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of angiographically-determined renal artery narrowing in a patient population undergoing routine cardiac catheterization, and to identify the risk factors for renal artery stenosis. After left ventriculography, abdominal aortography was performed to screen for the presence of renal artery stenosis. A total of 427 patients (274 males, 153 females) were studied and the mean age was 59 years. Renal artery narrowing was identified in 10.5% of patients. Significant (> or = 50% diameter narrowing) renal artery stenosis was found in 24 patients (5.6%) and insignificant stenosis was found in 21 patients (4.9%). Significant unilateral stenosis was present in 4.2% of patients and bilateral stenosis was present in 1.4%. The stem of the renal artery was a more common site of stenosis in 62.2% of patients than in the ostium (37.8%), but the severity of stenosis was not significantly different according to the site of stenosis. By univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis, the association of clinical variables with renal artery stenosis was assessed. Multivariable predictors included age, hypertension and peripheral vascular disease (p < 0.05). The variables such as sex, smoking history, hyperlipidemia, renal insufficiency, as well as the presence of obesity, severity of coronary heart disease and D.M., were not associated. In conclusion, the prevalence of angiographically-determined renal artery narrowing in a patient population undergoing cardiac catheterization is 10.5%. Old age, hypertension and evidence of peripheral vascular disease represent the predictors of renal artery stenosis.
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