The prognostic role of CD68 and FoxP3 in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) has not been evaluated. Thus, we examined the prognostic significance of CD68 and FoxP3 expression in tumor samples of 76 newly diagnosed immunocompetent PCNSL patients. All patients were treated initially with high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX)-based chemotherapy, and 16 (21.1%) patients received upfront autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) consolidation. High expression of CD68 (>55 cells/high-power field) or FoxP3 (>15 cells/high-power field) was observed in 10 patients, respectively. High CD68 expression was associated with inferior overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in multivariate analysis (P = 0.023 and P = 0.021, respectively). In addition, we performed subgroup analysis based on upfront ASCT. High CD68 expression was also associated with inferior OS and PFS in multivariate analysis (P = 0.013 and P < 0.001, respectively) among patients who did not receive upfront ASCT (n = 60), but not in patients who received upfront ASCT. The expression of FoxP3 was not significantly associated with survival. Therefore, we identified a prognostic significance of high CD68 expression in PCNSL, which suggests a need for further clinical trials and biological studies on the role of PCNSL tumor microenvironment.
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