The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

I. Sohn, R. J. Fruehan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H 2O generated from the reduction of Fe 2O 3 by H 2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pet reduction of the iron oxide.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-229
Number of pages7
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
Volume37
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2006 Apr 1

Fingerprint

hearths
Iron oxides
iron oxides
furnaces
Furnaces
Carbon
pellets
composite materials
carbon
Composite materials
Graphite
Coal
coal
Hydrogen
graphite
ferric oxide
Bituminous coal
infrared radiation
hydrogen
Hydrocarbons

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

@article{1dee8af3c29949bb88451207c12c60f3,
title = "The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process: Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites",
abstract = "The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H 2O generated from the reduction of Fe 2O 3 by H 2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pet reduction of the iron oxide.",
author = "I. Sohn and Fruehan, {R. J.}",
year = "2006",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/BF02693152",
language = "English",
volume = "37",
pages = "223--229",
journal = "Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science",
issn = "1073-5615",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The reduction of iron oxides by volatiles in a rotary hearth furnace process

T2 - Part II. The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composites

AU - Sohn, I.

AU - Fruehan, R. J.

PY - 2006/4/1

Y1 - 2006/4/1

N2 - The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H 2O generated from the reduction of Fe 2O 3 by H 2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pet reduction of the iron oxide.

AB - The reduction of iron oxide/carbon composite pellets with hydrogen at 900 °C to 1000 °C was studied. Compared to hydrogen, the reduction by carbon was negligible at 900 °C and below. However, significant carbon oxidation of the iron oxide/graphite pellets by H 2O generated from the reduction of Fe 2O 3 by H 2 was observed. At higher temperatures, reduction by carbon complicates the overall reduction mechanism, with the iron oxide/graphite composite pellet found to be more reactive than the iron oxide/char composite pellet. From the scanning electron micrographs, partially reduced composite pellets showed a typical topochemical interface with an intermediate region between an oxygen-rich unreacted core and an iron-rich outer shell. To determine the possibility of reduction by volatiles, a layer of iron oxide powders was spread on top of a high volatile containing bituminous coal and heated inside a reactor using infra-red radiation. By separating the individual reactions involved for an iron oxide/coal mixture where a complex set of reactions occur simultaneously, it was possible to determine the sole effect of volatile reduction. It was found that the light reducing gases evolve initially and react with the iron oxide, with complex hydrocarbons evolving at the later stages. The volatiles caused about 20 to 50 pet reduction of the iron oxide.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33646531454&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33646531454&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF02693152

DO - 10.1007/BF02693152

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:33646531454

VL - 37

SP - 223

EP - 229

JO - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

JF - Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science

SN - 1073-5615

IS - 2

ER -