The Rise of International Nongovernmental Organizations: A Top-Down or Bottom-Up Explanation?

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23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examines the conditions that facilitate the growth of international nongovernmental organizations (INGOs) in 126 countries, from 1982 to 2000. To explain the uneven growth of INGOs around the world, I test two competing theoretical approaches. The "top-down" perspective of growth focuses on the degree of a country's integration into the world polity and international economy. The "bottom-up" perspective emphasizes the development of democracy and the prosperity of the domestic economy as significant factors in facilitating INGO growth within a given country. An econometric analysis of panel data with ordinary least squares (OLS) suggests that both economic and political factors at the global and national level explain the rise of INGOs, rather than viewing either in an isolated fashion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)393-416
Number of pages24
JournalVoluntas
Volume21
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Business and International Management
  • Sociology and Political Science
  • Public Administration
  • Strategy and Management

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