The Risk Factors and Characteristics of COPD Among Nonsmokers in Korea: An Analysis of KNHANES IV and V

Su Hwan Lee, Eu Dong Hwang, Ju Eun Lim, Sungwoo Moon, Young Ae Kang, Ji Ye Jung, Moo Suk Park, Se Kyu Kim, Joon Chang, Young Sam Kim, Song Yee Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasing in prevalence and mortality. This study evaluated the prevalence, risk factors, characteristics, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of COPD among nonsmokers in Korea. Methods: This was a population-based cross-sectional study using data obtained from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2007 to 2011. Results: A total of 15,063 participants completely answered the questionnaire and performed the spirometry. Among them, 59.6 % were nonsmokers and 40.4 % were smokers. The prevalence of nonsmoker COPD was 7.1 %. On multivariate analysis, age ≥65 years (OR, 2.93; 95 % CI, 2.44–3.51), male sex (OR, 2.98; 95 % CI, 2.40–3.71), living in rural area (OR, 1.26; 95 % CI, 1.05–1.51), lower body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m2) (OR, 3.00; 95 % CI, 1.78–5.01), self-reported asthma (OR, 2.72; 95 % CI, 2.05–3.60), and self-reported tuberculosis (OR, 4.73; 95 % CI, 3.63–6.17) showed a significantly higher risk of nonsmoker COPD. Analysis of nonsmoker and smoker COPD revealed that there are more females in nonsmoker COPD patients (73.9 vs. 6.9 %, P < 0.001). Nonsmoker COPD patients presented with impaired mobility, pain/discomfort, and anxiety/depression functions as well as a lower mean EuroQol Five-Dimension Questionnaire utility score, which showed HRQoL. Conclusions: The burden of nonsmoker COPD was considerable. Older age, male sex, lower BMI, self-reported asthma, and self-reported tuberculosis were risk factors for nonsmoker COPD and there were differences between nonsmoker and smoker COPD in terms of sex, comorbidities, and HRQoL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-361
Number of pages9
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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