Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurons. Although the causative factors of PD remain elusive, many studies on PD animal models or humans suggest that glial activation along with neuroinflammatory processes contribute to the initiation or progression of PD. Additionally, several groups have proposed that dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) combined with infiltration of peripheral immune cells play important roles in the degeneration of DA neurons. However, these neuroinflammatory events have only been investigated separately, and the issue of whether these phenomena are neuroprotective or neurotoxic remains controversial. We here review the current knowledge regarding the functions of these neuroinflammatory processes in the brain. Finally, we describe therapeutic strategies for the regulation of neuroinflammation with the goal of improving the symptoms of PD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology