Objectives:Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway inhibits adipogenesis by maintaining preadipocytes in an undifferentiated state. We investigated the effect of indirubin-3'-oxime (I3O), which was screened as an activator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, on inhibiting the preadipocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo.Methods:3T3L1 preadipocytes were differentiated with 0, 4 or 20 μM of I3O. The I3O effect on adipocyte differentiation was observed by Oil-red-O staining. Activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in I3O-treated 3T3L1 cells was shown using immunocytochemical and immunoblotting analyses for β-catenin. The regulation of adipogenic markers was analyzed via real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting analyses. For the in vivo study, mice were divided into five different dietary groups: chow diet, high-fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with I3O at 5, 25 and 100 mg kg -1. After 8 weeks, adipose and liver tissues were excised from the mice and subject to morphometry, real-time RT-PCR, immunoblotting and histological or immunohistochemical analyses. In addition, adipokine and insulin concentrations in serum of the mice were accessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:Using a cell-based approach to screen a library of pharmacologically active small molecules, we identified I3O as a Wnt/β-catenin pathway activator. I3O inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into mature adipocytes and decreased the expression of adipocyte markers, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, at both mRNA and protein levels. In vivo, I3O inhibited the development of obesity in HFD-fed mice by attenuating HFD-induced body weight gain and visceral fat accumulation without showing any significant toxicity. Factors associated with metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia were also improved by treatment of I3O.Conclusion:Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway can be used as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome and implicates I3O as a candidate anti-obesity agent.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Nutrition and Dietetics