The central nervous system (CNS) is the most injury-prone part of the mammalian body. Any acute or chronic, central or peripheral neurological disorder is related to abnormal biochemical and electrical signals in the brain cells. As a result, ion channels and receptors that are abundant in the nervous system and control the electrical and biochemical environment of the CNS play a vital role in neurological disease. The N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo-1,2-oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptor, kainate receptor, acetylcholine receptor, serotonin receptor, α2-adrenoreceptor, and acid-sensing ion channels are among the major channels and receptors known to be key components of pathophysiological events in the CNS. The primary amine agmatine, a neuromodulator synthesized in the brain by decarboxylation of l-arginine, can regulate ion channel cascades and receptors that are related to the major CNS disorders. In our previous studies, we established that agmatine was related to the regulation of cell differentiation, nitric oxide synthesis, and murine brain endothelial cell migration, relief of chronic pain, cerebral edema, and apoptotic cell death in experimental CNS disorders. In this review, we will focus on the pathophysiological aspects of the neurological disorders regulated by these ion channels and receptors, and their interaction with agmatine in CNS injury.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea Government (MSIP) (2017R1A2B2005350).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience