This paper presents thermal analyses of the cooling system of a transition piece, which is one of the primary hot components in a gas turbine engine. The thermal analyses include heat transfer distributions induced by heat and fluid flow, temperature, and thermal stresses. The purpose of this study is to provide basic thermal and structural information on transition piece, to facilitate their maintenance and repair. The study is carried out primarily by numerical methods, using the commercial software, Fluent and ANSYS. First, the combustion field in a combustion liner with nine fuel nozzles is analyzed to determine the inlet conditions of a transition piece. Using the results of this analysis, pressure distributions inside a transition piece are calculated. The outside of the transition piece in a dump diffuser system is also analyzed. Information on the pressure differences is then used to obtain data on cooling channel flow (one of the methods for cooling a transition piece). The cooling channels have exit holes that function as film-cooling holes. Thermal and flow analyses are carried out on the inside of a film-cooled transition piece. The results are used to investigate the adjacent temperatures and wall heat transfer coefficients inside the transition piece. Overall temperature and thermal stress distributions of the transition piece are obtained. These results will provide a direction to improve thermal design of transition piece.