Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X

Ralf K. Heilmann, Mireille Akilian, Chih Hao Chang, Craig R. Forest, Chulmin Joo, Andrew Lapsa, Juan C. Montoya, Mark L. Schattenburg

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X is designed to supply astronomers with high spectral resolution in the soft x-ray band from 0.25 to 2 keV. High resolution, large collecting area and low mass at grazing incidence require very flat and thin grating substrates, or thin-foil optics. Thin foils typically have a diameter-to-thickness ratio of 200 or higher and as a result very low stiffness. This poses a number of technological challenges in the areas of shaping, handling, positioning, and mounting of such optics. The most minute forces (gravity sag, friction, thermal mismatch with optic mount, etc.) can lead to intolerable deformations and limit figure metrology repeatability. We present results of our efforts in the manipulation and metrology of suitable grating substrates, utilizing a novel low-stress foil holder with friction-reducing flexures. A large number of reflection gratings is needed to achieve the required collecting area. We have employed nanoimprint lithography (NIL) - which uses imprint films as thin as 100 nm or less - for the high-fidelity and low-stress replication from 100 mm diameter saw-tooth grating masters.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)283-290
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume5488
Issue numberPART 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004 Dec 20
EventUV and Gamma-Ray Space Telescope Systems - Glasgow, United Kingdom
Duration: 2004 Jun 212004 Jun 24

Fingerprint

Constellation-X
Diffraction gratings
Gratings
Metal foil
foils
Optics
gratings
Friction
Nanoimprint lithography
optics
Metrology
Spectral resolution
metrology
Substrates
Mountings
friction
High Resolution
Substrate
Spectrometers
Gravitation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Heilmann, R. K., Akilian, M., Chang, C. H., Forest, C. R., Joo, C., Lapsa, A., ... Schattenburg, M. L. (2004). Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X. Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, 5488(PART 1), 283-290. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.552001
Heilmann, Ralf K. ; Akilian, Mireille ; Chang, Chih Hao ; Forest, Craig R. ; Joo, Chulmin ; Lapsa, Andrew ; Montoya, Juan C. ; Schattenburg, Mark L. / Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X. In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering. 2004 ; Vol. 5488, No. PART 1. pp. 283-290.
@article{31e18b40d92e44a0b781b379918fb14d,
title = "Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X",
abstract = "The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X is designed to supply astronomers with high spectral resolution in the soft x-ray band from 0.25 to 2 keV. High resolution, large collecting area and low mass at grazing incidence require very flat and thin grating substrates, or thin-foil optics. Thin foils typically have a diameter-to-thickness ratio of 200 or higher and as a result very low stiffness. This poses a number of technological challenges in the areas of shaping, handling, positioning, and mounting of such optics. The most minute forces (gravity sag, friction, thermal mismatch with optic mount, etc.) can lead to intolerable deformations and limit figure metrology repeatability. We present results of our efforts in the manipulation and metrology of suitable grating substrates, utilizing a novel low-stress foil holder with friction-reducing flexures. A large number of reflection gratings is needed to achieve the required collecting area. We have employed nanoimprint lithography (NIL) - which uses imprint films as thin as 100 nm or less - for the high-fidelity and low-stress replication from 100 mm diameter saw-tooth grating masters.",
author = "Heilmann, {Ralf K.} and Mireille Akilian and Chang, {Chih Hao} and Forest, {Craig R.} and Chulmin Joo and Andrew Lapsa and Montoya, {Juan C.} and Schattenburg, {Mark L.}",
year = "2004",
month = "12",
day = "20",
doi = "10.1117/12.552001",
language = "English",
volume = "5488",
pages = "283--290",
journal = "Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering",
issn = "0277-786X",
publisher = "SPIE",
number = "PART 1",

}

Heilmann, RK, Akilian, M, Chang, CH, Forest, CR, Joo, C, Lapsa, A, Montoya, JC & Schattenburg, ML 2004, 'Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X', Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 5488, no. PART 1, pp. 283-290. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.552001

Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X. / Heilmann, Ralf K.; Akilian, Mireille; Chang, Chih Hao; Forest, Craig R.; Joo, Chulmin; Lapsa, Andrew; Montoya, Juan C.; Schattenburg, Mark L.

In: Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, Vol. 5488, No. PART 1, 20.12.2004, p. 283-290.

Research output: Contribution to journalConference article

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thin-foil reflection gratings for Constellation-X

AU - Heilmann, Ralf K.

AU - Akilian, Mireille

AU - Chang, Chih Hao

AU - Forest, Craig R.

AU - Joo, Chulmin

AU - Lapsa, Andrew

AU - Montoya, Juan C.

AU - Schattenburg, Mark L.

PY - 2004/12/20

Y1 - 2004/12/20

N2 - The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X is designed to supply astronomers with high spectral resolution in the soft x-ray band from 0.25 to 2 keV. High resolution, large collecting area and low mass at grazing incidence require very flat and thin grating substrates, or thin-foil optics. Thin foils typically have a diameter-to-thickness ratio of 200 or higher and as a result very low stiffness. This poses a number of technological challenges in the areas of shaping, handling, positioning, and mounting of such optics. The most minute forces (gravity sag, friction, thermal mismatch with optic mount, etc.) can lead to intolerable deformations and limit figure metrology repeatability. We present results of our efforts in the manipulation and metrology of suitable grating substrates, utilizing a novel low-stress foil holder with friction-reducing flexures. A large number of reflection gratings is needed to achieve the required collecting area. We have employed nanoimprint lithography (NIL) - which uses imprint films as thin as 100 nm or less - for the high-fidelity and low-stress replication from 100 mm diameter saw-tooth grating masters.

AB - The Reflection Grating Spectrometer (RGS) on Constellation-X is designed to supply astronomers with high spectral resolution in the soft x-ray band from 0.25 to 2 keV. High resolution, large collecting area and low mass at grazing incidence require very flat and thin grating substrates, or thin-foil optics. Thin foils typically have a diameter-to-thickness ratio of 200 or higher and as a result very low stiffness. This poses a number of technological challenges in the areas of shaping, handling, positioning, and mounting of such optics. The most minute forces (gravity sag, friction, thermal mismatch with optic mount, etc.) can lead to intolerable deformations and limit figure metrology repeatability. We present results of our efforts in the manipulation and metrology of suitable grating substrates, utilizing a novel low-stress foil holder with friction-reducing flexures. A large number of reflection gratings is needed to achieve the required collecting area. We have employed nanoimprint lithography (NIL) - which uses imprint films as thin as 100 nm or less - for the high-fidelity and low-stress replication from 100 mm diameter saw-tooth grating masters.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=10044293223&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=10044293223&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.552001

DO - 10.1117/12.552001

M3 - Conference article

AN - SCOPUS:10044293223

VL - 5488

SP - 283

EP - 290

JO - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

JF - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

SN - 0277-786X

IS - PART 1

ER -