This study aimed to determine the three-dimensional (3D) territory and depth of the corrugator supercilii muscle (CSM) using a 3D structured-light scanner. Thirty-two hemifaces from Korean and Thai embalmed cadavers were used in this study, and 35 healthy young Korean subjects also participated. A 3D analysis of the CSM territory and depth was performed using a structured-light 3D scanner. The most frequently observed locations of the CSM identified in the cadaver were confirmed in healthy young subjects using a real-time two-dimensional B-mode ultrasonography system. The CSM was present in all of the cadavers and healthy young subjects at the intersection point between the vertical line passing through the medial canthus and the horizontal line passing through the glabella (Point #6). The CSM was located on the medial side of the lateral limbus in most cases. The most-medial and most-lateral origin points were at depths of 5.7 ± 1.4 mm (mean ± SD) and 6.6 ± 1.4 mm, respectively; the corresponding depths of the insertion points were 5.4 ± 1.4 mm and 5.6 ± 2.1 mm, respectively. The origin and insertion points of the CSM were at similar depths. The injection depth should be around 4 mm for botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections into the CSM. Point #6 could be regarded as an effective target point for managing the glabellar frown line and preventing palpebral ptosis when injecting BoNT into the CSM. Clin. Anat., 33:795–803, 2020.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are grateful to the cadaver donors and their families who participated in the donation program. The authors thank Hwi Eun Hur (BA) from Davidson College for her assistance in revising the manuscript. The authors thank Woo Hyun Cho (MS) from Ajou University school of medicine, Medical Information & Media center for contributing illustrations to this manuscript. NRF‐2019R1C1C1008813, Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea) and (NRF) NRF‐2017R1A2B4003781, National Research Foundation of Korea.
© 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes