Three toxic heavy metals in open-angle glaucoma with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure: A cross-sectional study from South Korea

Si Hyung Lee, Eun Min Kang, Gyu Ah Kim, Seung Woo Kwak, Joon Mo Kim, Hyoung Won Bae, Gong Je Seong, Chan Yun Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Background: To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a populationbased study design. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG. Results: The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028), whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026). For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low- teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016), and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0164983
JournalPloS one
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016 Oct

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Republic of Korea
glaucoma
Open Angle Glaucoma
Poisons
South Korea
Heavy Metals
Intraocular Pressure
cross-sectional studies
heavy metals
Blood
Cross-Sectional Studies
Cadmium
cadmium
blood
Mercury
confidence interval
Confidence Intervals
Glaucoma
mercury
Nutrition

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Lee, Si Hyung ; Kang, Eun Min ; Kim, Gyu Ah ; Kwak, Seung Woo ; Kim, Joon Mo ; Bae, Hyoung Won ; Seong, Gong Je ; Kim, Chan Yun. / Three toxic heavy metals in open-angle glaucoma with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure : A cross-sectional study from South Korea. In: PloS one. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 10.
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title = "Three toxic heavy metals in open-angle glaucoma with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure: A cross-sectional study from South Korea",
abstract = "Background: To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a populationbased study design. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG. Results: The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028), whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95{\%} confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026). For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low- teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95{\%} CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016), and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95{\%} CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.",
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Three toxic heavy metals in open-angle glaucoma with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure : A cross-sectional study from South Korea. / Lee, Si Hyung; Kang, Eun Min; Kim, Gyu Ah; Kwak, Seung Woo; Kim, Joon Mo; Bae, Hyoung Won; Seong, Gong Je; Kim, Chan Yun.

In: PloS one, Vol. 11, No. 10, e0164983, 10.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Three toxic heavy metals in open-angle glaucoma with low-teen and high-teen intraocular pressure

T2 - A cross-sectional study from South Korea

AU - Lee, Si Hyung

AU - Kang, Eun Min

AU - Kim, Gyu Ah

AU - Kwak, Seung Woo

AU - Kim, Joon Mo

AU - Bae, Hyoung Won

AU - Seong, Gong Je

AU - Kim, Chan Yun

PY - 2016/10

Y1 - 2016/10

N2 - Background: To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a populationbased study design. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG. Results: The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028), whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026). For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low- teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016), and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.

AB - Background: To investigate the association between heavy metal levels and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) with low- and high-teen baseline intraocular pressure (IOP) using a populationbased study design. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 5,198 participants older than 19 years of age who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2012 and had blood heavy metal levels available. The OAG with normal baseline IOP (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg) subjects were stratified into low-teen OAG (baseline IOP ≤ 15 mmHg) and high-teen OAG (15 mmHg < baseline IOP ≤ 21 mmHg), and the association between blood lead, mercury, and cadmium levels and glaucoma prevalence was assessed for low- and high-teen OAG. Results: The adjusted geometric mean of blood cadmium levels was significantly higher in subjects with low-teen OAG than that of the non-glaucomatous group (P = 0.028), whereas there were no significant differences in blood lead and mercury levels. After adjusting for potential confounders, the low-teen OAG was positively associated with log-transformed blood cadmium levels (OR, 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.93; P = 0.026). For high-teen OAG, log-transformed blood levels of the three heavy metals were not associated with disease prevalence. The association between log-transformed blood cadmium levels and low- teen OAG was significant only in men (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10-2.48; P = 0.016), and not in women (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.66-1.85; P = 0.709). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cadmium toxicity could play a role in glaucoma pathogenesis, particularly in men and in OAG with low-teen baseline IOP.

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