The time-sequential change in immune-related gene expression of the glioblastoma cell line after irradiation was evaluated to speculate the effect of combined immunotherapy with radiotherapy. The U373 MG glioblastoma cell line was irradiated with 6 Gy single dose. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) transcriptome data was generated before irradiation (control), and at 6, 24, and 48 h post-irradiation. Immune-related pathways were analyzed at each time period. The same analyses were also performed for A549 lung cancer and U87 MG glioblastoma cell lines. Western blotting confirmed the programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression levels over time. In the U373 MG cell line, neutrophil-mediated immunity, type I interferon signaling, antigen cross-presentation to T cell, and interferon-γ signals began to increase significantly at 24 h and were upregulated until 48 h after irradiation. The results were similar to those of the A549 and U87 MG cell lines. Without T cell infiltration, PD-L1 did not increase even with upregulated interferon-γ signaling in cancer cells. In conclusions, in the glioblastoma cell line, immune-related signals were significantly upregulated at 24 and 48 h after irradiation. Therefore, the time interval between daily radiotherapy might not be enough to expect full immune responses by combined immune checkpoint inhibitors and newly infiltrating immune cells after irradiation.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Animal Cells and Systems|
|Publication status||Published - 2021|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, https://www.nrf.re.kr/eng/index) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) [grant number 2013M2A2A7043683] to IHK, the Ministry of Science and ICT [grant number 2020R1C1C1011369] to YJK, and the Ewha Alumni Medical Research [grant number 2018] to YJK. YJK, design of the work, analysis, interpretation of data, drafted the work; KK, acquisition, analysis, substantively revised; SYS, acquisition, analysis; JY, acquisition, analysis; IHK, design of the work, interpretation of data, substantively revised; HJK, substantively revised; CKP, substantively revised; KHL, design of the work, interpretation of data, substantively revised; JC, design of the work, interpretation of data, substantively revised; MSS, analysis, substantively revised; JHK, conception, design of the work, interpretation of data, and substantively revised.
© 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Animal Science and Zoology
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)