Purpose Titanium (Ti) alloys have received considerable attention as materials for oral and maxillofacial surgery, which require high mechanical strength, osteosynthesis, and biocompatibility. The objective was to implant miniplates fabricated from commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) and newly developed Ti–silver (Ag) alloy in fractured mandibles of adult dogs after preliminary mechanical and biological characterization. Materials and Methods The surface characteristics, biocompatibility, and pre-osteoblast adhesion and proliferation of CP Ti (grade 3) and Ti-Ag (2 at% Ag) alloys were evaluated. Next, the bending strength of 6- and 8-hole miniplates fabricated from CP Ti and Ti-Ag was compared according to ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 9585. Six-hole miniplates were implanted for 12 weeks in fractured mandibles of adult dogs. The Ag ion concentration in each alloy and implanted bone block with soft tissue was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy after euthanasia according to ISO 10993-12. Results Precipitated Ag was detected in Ti-Ag by alpha- and beta-phase Ti in x-ray powder diffraction. The biocompatibility with pre-osteoblasts of Ti-Ag and CP Ti was comparable in terms of cytotoxicity, cell adhesion, and proliferation (P > .05). Ti-Ag miniplates had up to 3-fold greater bending strength than CP Ti miniplates (P < .05). An in vivo study showed that CP Ti and Ti-Ag miniplates had comparable soft and hard tissue regeneration ability (P > .05). Ag ions were detected in Ti-Ag alloys and applied mandible blocks. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that Ti-Ag alloys can be used to produce miniplates with high mechanical properties, as well as considerable biocompatibility, osteosynthesis ability, and Ag ion–release properties. Further studies, including preclinical investigations, are required to enable clinical use of Ti-Ag bone plates.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology ( R13-2003-013-03001-0 ) and the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning ( NRF-2015R1C1A1A01052127 ).
© 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Oral Surgery