The development of analytical tools for accurate and sensitive detection of intracellular metabolites associated with mutated metabolic enzymes is important in cancer diagnosis and staging. The gene encoding the metabolic enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is mutated in various cancers, and mutant IDH1 could represent a good biomarker and potent target for cancer therapy. Owing to a mutation in an important arginine residue in the catalytic pocket, mutant IDH1 catalyzes the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) instead of its wild type product α-ketoglutarate (α-KG), which is involved in multiple cellular pathways involving the hydroxylation of proteins, ribonucleic acid, and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). Since 2-HG is an α-KG antagonist, inhibiting normal α-KG-dependent metabolism, high intracellular levels of 2-HG result in abnormal histone and DNA methylation. Therefore, accurate and sensitive analytical tools for the direct detection of 2-HG in cancer cells expressing mutant IDH1 would benefit this field, as it would minimize the need both for complicated experimental procedures and for large amounts of biological samples. Here, the authors describe a useful analytical method for the direct detection of 2-HG in lysates from a mutant IDH1-expressing cell line by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analysis, a powerful surface analysis tool. In addition, the authors verified the efficacy of the specific mutant IDH1 inhibitor AGI-5198 by tracking the intracellular 2-HG concentration, which decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate the large potential of TOF-SIMS as an analytical tool for the simple, direct detection of oncometabolites during cancer diagnosis, and for verifying the efficiency of the targeted cancer drugs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Development of Platform Technology for Innovative Medical Measurements Program (No. KRISS-2017-GP2017-0020) from the Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, the Nano Material Technology Development Program (No. 2014M3A7B6020163), the Pioneer Research Program (No. NRF-2012-009541), the Bio and Medical Technology Development Program (No. NRF- 2015M3A9D7029894), and the Global Frontier Project (No. H-GUARD-2013M3A6B2078962) of the National Research Foundation (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT and Development of Nanotechnology-based Quantitative Surface Mass Spectrometric Platform Technique to Detect Lowmass Biomolecules funded by the MOTIE.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Physics and Astronomy(all)