Background: Understanding the topography of the blood vessels distributed around the nasolabial fold region is essential for ensuring the safety of dermal filler injections into the nasolabial fold. The purpose of this study was to provide anatomical information on the infraorbital artery distribution and its relationship with the facial artery for use in clinical procedures involving filler injection during nasolabial fold augmentation. Methods: The infraorbital artery was investigated in the nasolabial fold region divided into zones I to XII based on clock-hour meridians centered on the infraorbital foramen. The running layers of the infraorbital artery and infraorbital nerve were also compared in the infraorbital foramen. Changes in the infraorbital artery were observed according to vascular dominance of the facial artery. Results: The infraorbital artery was divided into three main branches, palpebral, nasal, and labial infraorbital artery branches in 34.7, 100, and 100 percent of the specimens, respectively; with these branches of palpebral, nasal, and labial infraorbital artery observed most commonly in zones I, V, and VI, respectively. Analysis of the bilateral facial artery topography revealed that its vascular dominance was observed in 19.4 percent. The infraorbital artery was thicker and had a wider distribution on the nondominant side of the facial artery, whereas the nasal infraorbital nerve anastomosed with the facial artery in the lateral nasal region in 57.1 percent. Conclusion: Investigating and verifying the vascular structure regarding its interactions with the facial artery and infraorbital artery will provide critical information to physicians performing facial surgery and cosmetic procedures.
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