Trajectory of Antidepressant Effects after Single-or Two-Dose Administration of Psilocybin: A Systematic Review and Multivariate Meta-Analysis

Chia Ling Yu, Chih Sung Liang, Fu Chi Yang, Yu Kang Tu, Chih Wei Hsu, Andre F. Carvalho, Brendon Stubbs, Trevor Thompson, Chia Kuang Tsai, Ta Chuan Yeh, Szu Nian Yang, Jae Il Shin, Che Sheng Chu, Ping Tao Tseng, Kuan Pin Su

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2 Citations (Scopus)


We examined the cardiovascular safety, acceptability, and trajectory of the antidepressant effects of psilocybin after single-or two-dose administration. Four major electronic databases were systematically searched. Data were pooled using a multivariate random-effects meta-analysis. Primary outcomes were changes in depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes were cardiovascular safety and acceptability. Ten studies were included. The estimated effect sizes (standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals) for psilocybin were −0.75 (−1.15 to −0.35) on day 1, −1.74 (−2.15 to −1.32) at 1 week, −1.35 (−1.77 to −0.93) at 1 month, −0.91 (−1.31 to −0.51) at 3 months, and −1.12 (−1.56 to −0.68) at 6 months. Higher doses and two sessions of psilocybin treatment were significantly associated with superior antidepressant effects. The all-cause discontinuation and heart rate after psilocybin administration were comparable to placebo; meanwhile, psilocybin increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 19.00 mmHg and 8.66 mmHg, respectively. There were no significant differences between SMD derived from placebo-controlled trials compared to those from pre–post changes and SMD in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) compared to those in non-RCTs. The present study demonstrates that single-or two-dose psilocybin administration has rapid and sustained antidepressant effects for up to 6 months, with favorable cardiovascular safety and acceptability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number938
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Feb 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by grants from Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan (KGVGH-110-051, VGHKS-109-070), and Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan (MOST-109-2314-B-075B-001-MY2).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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