This study was performed to investigate the changes in gene expression in periodontal ligament (PDL) cells following mechanical stimulus through RNA sequencing. In this study, premolars extracted for orthodontic treatment were used. To stimulate the PDL cells, an orthodontic force of 100× g was applied to the premolar (experimental group; n = 11), whereas the tooth on the other side was left untreated (control group; n = 11). After the PDL cells were isolated from the extracted teeth, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), differentially expressed gene (DEG) analysis, and real-time PCR were performed to compare the two groups. GSEA demonstrated that gene sets related to the cell cycle pathway were upregulated in PDL. Thirteen upregulated and twenty downregulated genes were found through DEG analysis. Real-time PCR results confirmed that five upregulated genes (CC2D1B, CPNE3, OPHN1, TANGO2, and UAP-1) and six downregulated genes (MYOM2, PPM1F, PCDP1, ATP2A1, GPR171, and RP1-34H18.1-1) were consistent with RNA sequencing results. We suggest that, from among these eleven genes, two upregulated genes, CPNE3 and OPHN1, and one downregulated gene, PPM1F, play an important role in PDL regeneration in humans when orthodontic force is applied.
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