This study investigated the efficacy of a novel surgical method that relies on the transient fixation of L4 in Lenke Type 5C and 6C adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Thirty-six transient surgically treated L4 fixation patients were retrospectively evaluated. The first surgery involved mechanical correction of scoliosis; the lowest instrumented vertebra (LIV) was L4. After an average of 1.3 years (range, 0.3–3.4), the second surgery to remove transient L4 pedicle screws was performed. Radiographic parameters and SRS-22 scores were measured. Cobb’s angle, coronal balance, LIV tilting angle, and LIV coronal disc angle clearly improved after the first surgery (p < 0.01). After the second surgery, the corrected Cobb angle (p = 0.446) and coronal balance were maintained (p = 0.271). Although L3/S1 lumbar lordosis decreased after the first surgery (p < 0.01), after removal of transient L4 pedicle screws, it recovered slightly (p = 0.03). Similarly, the preoperative L3/4 lateral disc mobility eventually recovered after transient L4 screw removal (p < 0.01). The function domain of the SRS-22 showed better scores after removal of transient L4 screws (p = 0.04). L4 transient fixation surgery is beneficial for Lenke Type 5C and 6C scolioses that do not fully satisfy LIV (L3) criteria. It preserves L3/4 disc motion, increases functional outcomes, and maintains spinal correction and coronal balance.
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