## Abstract

To reconstruct magnetic resonance (MR) images from undersampled Cartesian k-space data, we propose an algorithm based on two deep-learning architectures: (1) a multi-layer perceptron (MLP) that estimates a target image from 1D inverse Fourier transform (IFT) of k-space; and (2) a convolutional neural network (CNN) that estimates the target image from the estimated image of the MLP. The MLP learns the relationship between 1D IFT of undersampled k-space which is transformed along the frequency-encoding direction and the target fully-sampled image. The MLP is trained line by line rather than by a whole image, because each frequency-encoding line of the 1D IFT of k-space is not correlated with each other. It can dramatically decrease the number of parameters to be learned because the number of input/output pixels decrease from N^{2} to N. The next CNN learns the relationship between an estimated image of the MLP and the target fully-sampled image to reduce remaining artifacts in the image domain. The proposed deep-learning algorithm (i.e., the combination of the MLP and the CNN) exhibited superior performance over a single MLP and a single CNN. And it outperformed the comparison algorithms including CS-MRI, DL-MRI, a CNN-based algorithm (denoted as Wang’s algorithm), PANO, and FDLCP in both qualitative and quantitative evaluation. Consequently, the proposed algorithm is applicable up to a sampling ratio of 25% in Cartesian k-space.

Original language | English |
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Title of host publication | Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2018 - 21st International Conference, 2018, Proceedings |

Editors | Julia A. Schnabel, Christos Davatzikos, Carlos Alberola-López, Gabor Fichtinger, Alejandro F. Frangi |

Publisher | Springer Verlag |

Pages | 241-249 |

Number of pages | 9 |

ISBN (Print) | 9783030009274 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 2018 |

Event | 21st International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2018 - Granada, Spain Duration: 2018 Sep 16 → 2018 Sep 20 |

### Publication series

Name | Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics) |
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Volume | 11070 LNCS |

ISSN (Print) | 0302-9743 |

ISSN (Electronic) | 1611-3349 |

### Other

Other | 21st International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2018 |
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Country | Spain |

City | Granada |

Period | 18/9/16 → 18/9/20 |

### Bibliographical note

Funding Information:Acknowledgements. This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (2016R1A2B4015016) and was partially supported by the Graduate School of YONSEI University Research Scholarship Grants in 2017 and the Brain Korea 21 Plus Project of Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Yonsei University in 2018.

Publisher Copyright:

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018.

## All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

- Theoretical Computer Science
- Computer Science(all)