The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of autologous transplantation of peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) mobilized with high-dose consolidation chemotherapy and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Twenty patients received myeloablative chemotherapy or chemo-radiotherapy including total body irradiation followed by the infusion of PBSC. PBSC were collected by large-volume leukaphereses. The mean number of mononuclear cells and CD34-positive cells infused were 7.2 x 108/kg (range, 2.2- 16.6), and 6.6 x 106/kg (range, 2.1-27.7), respectively. Engraftment failure was not seen in the enrolled patients. The median time to neutrophil (≥ 500/μ L) and platelet recovery (≥ 50,000/μ L) from the transplant was 12 days (range, 8-20) and 28 days (range, 10-600), respectively. The 2-year probability of disease-free survival (DFS) and relapse were 43% and 57% for patients with AML transplanted in first complete remission (CR.). The outcome of the patients transplanted in the advanced status was significantly worse than the patients transplanted in CR1 (P=0.04). Most relapses occurred within 1 year after transplantation. Fatal hepatic veno-occlusive disease was observed in one case. Other transplantation-related toxicities were mild. Our results demonstrated that autologous transplantation of high-dose consolidation chemotherapy-mobilized peripheral blood progenitor cells is feasible in the patients with AML in CR1. To further reduce the risk of leukemia relapse, much effort should be contributed to the field of ex vivo purging and post-transplant immunotherapy.
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