Approximately one-third of patients with colorectal cancer are estimated to be diagnosed with synchronous liver metastasis (LM). The only method to get cured is to achieve curative resection for both primary and LM. When it comes to locally advanced rectal cancer with synchronous LM, determination of the treatment strategy for each individual is a quite complex procedure, because it demands sophisticated consideration for both local and systemic control. Timing for the application of systemic chemotherapy (CTx), determination of a chemotherapeutic agent, radiation dose and fractions, and sequencing of preoperative treatment and surgeries are all essential components for establishing optimal treatment strategies for the patients with this disease. In this article, treatment strategies proposed in the literature will be reviewed in the light of oncologic outcomes and treatment toxicity with their possible advantages and disadvantages. Owing to a lack of concrete evidences for the best strategy, this article can guide authors to a better way of determining more tailored treatment for each individual.
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