Trends in Cigarette Smoking Among Older Male Adults in China: An Urban–Rural Comparison

Kuiyun Zhi, Lan Wang, Yangdi Han, Michael G. Vaughn, Zhengmin Qian, Yongjin Chen, Lili Xie, Jin Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


This study compared urban/rural trends in cigarette smoking rates among older male adults in China. Data were derived from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (N = 5,147). Logistic models were computed to assess the occurrence of cigarette smoking between 1991 and 2011 across urban/rural administrative districts. Cigarette smoking rates remained consistent (about 50%) in rural villages over the last two decades but decreased by about 1.1 percentage points annually in urban neighborhoods. After adjusting for individual and community characteristics, divergent urban/rural trends in cigarette smoking rates did not vary statistically. Trends in cigarette smoking may be associated with unbalanced social and economic development in urban and rural China, and are an indicator of social determinants of health inequalities. Results suggest tobacco control policies and interventions should specifically focus on older adults vulnerable to economic inequality. Findings have implications for health and economic inequality among older adults in general.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)884-901
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Applied Gerontology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jun 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research uses data from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). Ms. Zhi is grateful for the support provided by School of Social Work, Saint Louis University during her visit. Authors thank Matthew Renaud for his editorial support. We thank the National Institute of Nutrition and Food Safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Carolina Population Center (5 R24 HD050924), the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, the National Institutes of Health (NIH; R01-HD30880, DK056350, R24 HD050924, and R01-HD38700) and the Fogarty International Center, NIH for financial support for the CHNS data collection and analysis files from 1989 to 2011 and future surveys, and the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, Ministry of Health for support for CHNS 2009.

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2017.

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Gerontology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology


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