A highly sensitive and stable tris(2,2′-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II) (Ru(bpy)32+) electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) sensor was developed based on carbon nanotube (CNT) dispersed in mesoporous composite films of sol-gel titania and perfluorosulfonated ionomer (Nafion). Single-wall (SWCNT) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can be easily dispersed in the titania-Nafion composite solution. The hydrophobic CNT in the titania-Nafion composite films coated on a glassy carbon electrode certainly increased the amount of Ru(bpy)32+ immobilized in the ECL sensor by adsorption of Ru(bpy)32+ onto CNT surface, the electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of hydrophobic analytes, and the electronic conductivity of the composite films. Therefore, the present ECL sensor based on the CNT-titania-Nafion showed improved ECL sensitivity for tripropylamine (TPA) compared to the ECL sensors based on both titania-Nafion composite films without CNT and pure Nafion films. The present Ru(bpy)32+ ECL sensor based on the MWCNT-titania--Nafion composite gave a linear response (R2 = 0.999) for TPA concentration from 50 nM to 1.0 mM with a remarkable detection limit (S/N = 3) of 10 nM while the ECL sensors based on titania-Nafion composite without MWCNT, pure Nafion films, and MWCNT-Nafion composite gave a detection limit of 0.1 μM, 1 μM, and 50 nM, respectively. The present ECL sensor showed outstanding long-term stability (no signal loss for 4 months).
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Environmental Chemistry