Tuberculous encephalopathy (TBE) is an established disease entity of diffuse cerebral damage occurring with tuberculosis and an underlying immune pathogenesis. However, the presence of this disease entity remains controversial. We report a 15-year-old boy with seizures and a progressive decline of cognitive function. Brain MRI showed diffuse, hyperintense lesions in the white matter on a T2-weighted image, with gadolinium enhancement on a T1-weighted image. Brain biopsy revealed demyelination and granuloma in the white matter. Ziehl-Neelsen staining showed acid-fast bacilli in the granulomas. Antituberculous medication with concomitant steroid treatment resulted in radiological resolution in addition to clinical improvement. Clinicopathological evidence in this case provides additional convincing evidence of TBE as a disease entity distinct from tuberculous meningitis.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology