Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common systemic vasculitis in children, and renal involvement (HSP nephritis, HSPN) is a severe manifestation. HSPN is histologically classified by the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC) based on mesangial hypercellularity and the extent of glomerular crescents. Macrophages, categorized as M1 or M2, frequently infiltrate in various glomerular and tubulointerstitial diseases and infiltration of specific subtypes is associated with disease progression. Therefore, to identify whether infiltration of M1 or M2 macrophages has clinical significance, we quantified the subtypes of macrophages in 49 HSPN specimens and correlated the counts with histologic features and clinical parameters. Higher tubulointerstitial M2 counts were associated with chronic renal failure (CRF), ISKDC classes III-IV, and crescents (P<0.001, 0.002, 0.001). Glomerular M2 counts were significantly related to ISKDC classes III-IV and crescents (area under curve, AUC 0.804, 0.833). Tubulointerstitial M2 counts were associated with CRF, ISKDC classes III-IV, and crescents (AUC 0.872, 0.778, 0.830). Tubulointerstitial M2 counts also revealed higher AUC than tubulointerstitial M1 counts for CRF (P=0.036) and ISKDC classes III-IV (P=0.047). Glomerular M2 counts revealed higher AUC than glomerular M1 counts for ISKDC classes III-IV (P=0.024). Tubulointerstitial M2 counts were the most powerful parameter for CRF (AUC 0.872) and revealed even higher AUC than ISKDC classification (AUC 0.716) with borderline significance (P=0.086) for CRF. In summary, tubulointerstitial M2 counts were a superior parameter to tubulointerstitial M1 counts and even to ISKDC classification indicating the presence of CRF.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The present study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (Grant no. NRF-2015R1C1A1A02036671).
© 2019 Jisup Kim et al.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)