Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials and their heterostructures have recently been recognized as promising building blocks for futuristic brain-like neuromorphic computing devices. They exhibit unique properties such as near-atomic thickness, dangling-bond-free surfaces, high mechanical robustness, and electrical/optical tunability. Such attributes unattainable with traditional electronic materials are particularly promising for high-performance artificial neurons and synapses, enabling energy-efficient operation, high integration density, and excellent scalability. In this review, diverse 2D materials explored for neuromorphic applications, including graphene, transition metal dichalcogenides, hexagonal boron nitride, and black phosphorous, are comprehensively overviewed. Their promise for neuromorphic applications are fully discussed in terms of material property suitability and device operation principles. Furthermore, up-to-date demonstrations of neuromorphic devices based on 2D materials or their heterostructures are presented. Lastly, the challenges associated with the successful implementation of 2D materials into large-scale devices and their material quality control will be outlined along with the future prospect of these emergent materials.
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This work was supported by the National Science Foundation ( CMMI-1728390 ) (M.S.S. and Y.J.), the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP), and the Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20173010013340 ) (Y.J.). Y.J. also acknowledges VPR Advancement of Early Career Researchers award from the University of Central Florida . This research was in part supported by the Creative Materials Discovery Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning ( NRF-2019M3D1A1069793 ). A.K., D.D., M.M.I., and T.R. acknowledge the support of NSF CAREER Award no. NSF-ECCS-1845331 . The involvement of researchers (S.A.M.) from Norway has been supported by the Research Council of Norway within the Nano 2021 program through the SINTEF and NTNU research project “High-Performance Nano Insulation Materials” (Hi-Per NIM, Project No. 250159 ). G.L. was supported by Creative-Pioneering Researchers Program through Seoul National University (SNU).
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