Two-dimensional vanadium-doped ZnO nanosheet-based flexible direct current nanogenerator

Manoj Kumar Gupta, Ju Hyuck Lee, Keun Young Lee, Sang Woo Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Here, we report the synthesis of lead-free single-crystalline two-dimensional (2D) vanadium(V)-doped ZnO nanosheets (NSs) and their application for high-performance flexible direct current (DC) power piezoelectric nanogenerators (NGs). The vertically aligned ZnO nanorods (NRs) converted to NS networks by V doping. Piezoresponse force microscopy studies reveal that vertical V-doped ZnO NS exhibit typical ferroelectricity with clear phase loops, butterfly, and well-defined hysteresis loops with a piezoelectric charge coefficient of up to 4 pm/V, even in 2D nanostructures. From pristine ZnO NR-based NGs, alternating current (AC)-type output current was observed, while from V-doped ZnO NS-based NGs, a DC-type output current density of up to 1.0 μAcm-2 was surprisingly obtained under the same vertical compressive force. The growth mechanism, ferroelectric behavior, charge inverted phenomena, and high piezoelectric output performance observed from the V-doped ZnO NS are discussed in terms of the formation of an ionic layer of [V(OH)4-], permanent electric dipole, and the doping-induced resistive behavior of ZnO NS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8932-8939
Number of pages8
JournalACS Nano
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2013 Oct 22

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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