Macrophages play important roles in cancer microenvironment. Human cytosolic glycyl-tRNA synthetase (GARS1) was previously shown to be secreted via extracellular vesicles (EVs) from macrophages to trigger cancer cell death. However, the effects of GARS1-containing EVs (GARS1-EVs) on macrophages as well as on cancer cells and the working mechanisms of GARS1 in cancer microenvironment are not yet understood. Here we show that GARS1-EVs induce M1 polarization and facilitate phagocytosis of macrophages. GARS1-EVs triggers M1 polarization of macrophage via the specific interaction of the extracellular cadherin subdomains 1–4 of the cadherin EGF LAG seven-pass G-type receptor 2 (CELSR2) with the N-terminal WHEP domain containing peptide region of GARS1, and activates the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway for M1 type cytokine production and phagocytosis. Besides, GARS1 interacted with cadherin 6 (CDH6) of cancer cells via its C-terminal tRNA-binding domain to induce cancer cell death. In vivo model, GARS1-EVs showed potent suppressive activity against tumor initiation via M1 type macrophages. GARS1 displayed on macrophage-secreted extracellular vesicles suppressed tumor growth in dual mode, namely through pro-apoptotic effect on cancer cells and M1 polarization effect on macrophages. Collectively, these results elucidate the unique tumor suppressive activity and mechanism of GARS1-EVs by activating M1 macrophage via CELSR2 as well as by direct killing of cancer cells via CDH6.
|Publication status||Published - 2022 Jul 28|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIT) (No. NRF-2021R1A3B1076605 ) and Yonsei University Research Fund (2020-22-0293, 2020-22-0291 and 2021-22-0061) .
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research