Two polyphenol oxidases are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the fuji apple

Joo Young Kim, Young Sam Seo, Jee Eun Kim, Soon Kee Sung, Kwan Jeong Song, Gynheung An, Woo Taek Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of phenolics to quinones which make brown pigments in wounded tissues. Because the phenomena decrease fruit quality, PPO has been regarded to be a critical enzyme in food technology. In the course of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis of the Fuji apple (Malus domesticus Borkh.), we identified two partial PPO cDNA clones; F114 corresponded to the previously isolated Granny Smith apple pAPO5 (Plant Mol. Biol. 27 (1995) 429), while F226 was a new clone. Using F226 as a probe, we isolated a full length PPO clone, pMD-PPO2, from a cDNA library prepared from young fruits of the Fuji apple. The deduced amino acid sequences of pMD-PPO2 and pAPO5 share 55% identity, and display a high degree of sequence identity (43-58%) 581/6) with previously identified PPO from various species. RNA gel blot analysis using gene-specific probes showed that two apple PPO genes display unique patterns of expression in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner. In the process of flower development, the APO5 transcript was detectable only at the post-anthesis stage. In contrast, MD-PPO2 was expressed in all stages of flower development, with the abundance of mRNA being the highest at the pre-anthesis stage and then receding as the flower developed. Both genes are expressed in the early stages of fruit development. The expression was dramatically reduced as the fruit ripened. In leaf tissue, the APO5 gene was highly expressed in young and immature leaves, while MD-PPO2 was transcriptionally more active in both immature and mature leaves. Upon wounding, APO5 was significantly induced in leaves and fruits, whereas the level of MD-PPO2 mRNA was not affected by mechanical damage. Thus, it appears that two Fuji PPO genes are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the Fuji apple plants. The possible molecular mechanism of differential regulation of PPO gene expression in apple plant and its physiological significance are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1145-1152
Number of pages8
JournalPlant Science
Volume161
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2001 Dec 1

Fingerprint

Catechol Oxidase
Malus
catechol oxidase
apples
Fruit
flowering
Clone Cells
Genes
clones
genes
fruits
leaves
immatures
metalloproteins
Metalloproteins
Quinones
Messenger RNA
Food Technology
mechanical damage
Expressed Sequence Tags

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Genetics
  • Agronomy and Crop Science
  • Plant Science

Cite this

Kim, Joo Young ; Seo, Young Sam ; Kim, Jee Eun ; Sung, Soon Kee ; Song, Kwan Jeong ; An, Gynheung ; Kim, Woo Taek. / Two polyphenol oxidases are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the fuji apple. In: Plant Science. 2001 ; Vol. 161, No. 6. pp. 1145-1152.
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abstract = "Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of phenolics to quinones which make brown pigments in wounded tissues. Because the phenomena decrease fruit quality, PPO has been regarded to be a critical enzyme in food technology. In the course of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis of the Fuji apple (Malus domesticus Borkh.), we identified two partial PPO cDNA clones; F114 corresponded to the previously isolated Granny Smith apple pAPO5 (Plant Mol. Biol. 27 (1995) 429), while F226 was a new clone. Using F226 as a probe, we isolated a full length PPO clone, pMD-PPO2, from a cDNA library prepared from young fruits of the Fuji apple. The deduced amino acid sequences of pMD-PPO2 and pAPO5 share 55{\%} identity, and display a high degree of sequence identity (43-58{\%}) 581/6) with previously identified PPO from various species. RNA gel blot analysis using gene-specific probes showed that two apple PPO genes display unique patterns of expression in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner. In the process of flower development, the APO5 transcript was detectable only at the post-anthesis stage. In contrast, MD-PPO2 was expressed in all stages of flower development, with the abundance of mRNA being the highest at the pre-anthesis stage and then receding as the flower developed. Both genes are expressed in the early stages of fruit development. The expression was dramatically reduced as the fruit ripened. In leaf tissue, the APO5 gene was highly expressed in young and immature leaves, while MD-PPO2 was transcriptionally more active in both immature and mature leaves. Upon wounding, APO5 was significantly induced in leaves and fruits, whereas the level of MD-PPO2 mRNA was not affected by mechanical damage. Thus, it appears that two Fuji PPO genes are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the Fuji apple plants. The possible molecular mechanism of differential regulation of PPO gene expression in apple plant and its physiological significance are discussed.",
author = "Kim, {Joo Young} and Seo, {Young Sam} and Kim, {Jee Eun} and Sung, {Soon Kee} and Song, {Kwan Jeong} and Gynheung An and Kim, {Woo Taek}",
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Two polyphenol oxidases are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the fuji apple. / Kim, Joo Young; Seo, Young Sam; Kim, Jee Eun; Sung, Soon Kee; Song, Kwan Jeong; An, Gynheung; Kim, Woo Taek.

In: Plant Science, Vol. 161, No. 6, 01.12.2001, p. 1145-1152.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Two polyphenol oxidases are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the fuji apple

AU - Kim, Joo Young

AU - Seo, Young Sam

AU - Kim, Jee Eun

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AU - Song, Kwan Jeong

AU - An, Gynheung

AU - Kim, Woo Taek

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N2 - Polyphenol oxidase (PPO), a copper-containing metalloprotein, catalyzes the oxidation of phenolics to quinones which make brown pigments in wounded tissues. Because the phenomena decrease fruit quality, PPO has been regarded to be a critical enzyme in food technology. In the course of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) analysis of the Fuji apple (Malus domesticus Borkh.), we identified two partial PPO cDNA clones; F114 corresponded to the previously isolated Granny Smith apple pAPO5 (Plant Mol. Biol. 27 (1995) 429), while F226 was a new clone. Using F226 as a probe, we isolated a full length PPO clone, pMD-PPO2, from a cDNA library prepared from young fruits of the Fuji apple. The deduced amino acid sequences of pMD-PPO2 and pAPO5 share 55% identity, and display a high degree of sequence identity (43-58%) 581/6) with previously identified PPO from various species. RNA gel blot analysis using gene-specific probes showed that two apple PPO genes display unique patterns of expression in a tissue- and developmental-specific manner. In the process of flower development, the APO5 transcript was detectable only at the post-anthesis stage. In contrast, MD-PPO2 was expressed in all stages of flower development, with the abundance of mRNA being the highest at the pre-anthesis stage and then receding as the flower developed. Both genes are expressed in the early stages of fruit development. The expression was dramatically reduced as the fruit ripened. In leaf tissue, the APO5 gene was highly expressed in young and immature leaves, while MD-PPO2 was transcriptionally more active in both immature and mature leaves. Upon wounding, APO5 was significantly induced in leaves and fruits, whereas the level of MD-PPO2 mRNA was not affected by mechanical damage. Thus, it appears that two Fuji PPO genes are differentially expressed during vegetative and reproductive development and in response to wounding in the Fuji apple plants. The possible molecular mechanism of differential regulation of PPO gene expression in apple plant and its physiological significance are discussed.

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