Many osteopenic disorders, including a postmenopausal osteoporosis and lytic bone metastasis in breast and prostate cancers, are linked with a hyperosteoclast activity due to increased receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblastic/stromal cells. Therefore, inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast-induced bone resorption is an important approach in controlling pathophysiology of these skeletal diseases. We found that, of seven type I, II, and III saikosaponins isolated from Bupleurum falcatum, saikosaponins A and D, type I saikosaponins with an allyl oxide linkage between position 13 and 28 and two carbohydrate chains that are directly attached to the hydroxyl groups in position 3, exhibited the most potent inhibition on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation at noncytotoxic concentrations. The stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group at C16 did not affect their activity. Saikosaponins A and D inhibited the formation of resorptive pits by reducing the secreted levels of matrix metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2, MMP-9, and cathepsin K in RANKL-induced osteoclasts. Additionally, saikosaponins A and D inhibited mRNA expression of parathyroid hormone-related protein as well as cell viability and invasion in metastatic human breast cancer cells. Thus, saikosaponins A and D can serve as a beneficial agent for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis and cancer-induced bone loss.
|Journal||Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine|
|Publication status||Published - 2015|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Complementary and alternative medicine