Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO), a member of the ubiquitin-related protein family, is covalently conjugated to lysine residues of its substrates in a process referred to as SUMOylation. SUMOylation occurs through a series of enzymatic reactions analogous to that of the ubiquitination pathway, resulting in modification of the biochemical and functional properties of substrates. To date, four mammalian SUMO isoforms, a single heterodimeric SUMO-activating E1 enzyme SAE1/SAE2, a single SUMO-conjugating E2 enzyme ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2I (UBC9), and a few subgroups of SUMO E3 ligases have been identified. Several SUMO E3 ligases such as topoisomerase I binding, arginine/serine-rich (TOPORS), TNF receptor-associated factor 7 (TRAF7), and tripartite motif containing 27 (TRIM27) have dual functions as ubiquitin E3 ligases. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin E3 ligase UHRF2 also acts as a SUMO E3 ligase. UHRF2 effectively enhances zinc finger protein 131 (ZNF131) SUMOylation but does not enhance ZNF131 ubiquitination. In addition, the SUMO E3 activity of UHRF2 on ZNF131 depends on the presence o f SET and RING finger-associated and nuclear localization signal-containing region domains, whereas the critical ubiquitin E3 activity RING domain is dispensable. Our findings suggest that UHRF2 has independent functional domains and regulatory mechanisms for these two distinct enzymatic activities.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology