Ultra-soft and highly stretchable tissue-adhesive hydrogel based multifunctional implantable sensor for monitoring of overactive bladder

Byungkook Oh, Young Soo Lim, Kun Woo Ko, Hyeonyeob Seo, Dong Jun Kim, Dukyoo Kong, Jae Min You, Hansoul Kim, Taek Soo Kim, Seongjun Park, Dong Soo Kwon, Joon Chae Na, Woong Kyu Han, Sung Min Park, Steve Park

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A highly stretchable and tissue-adhesive multifunctional sensor based on structurally engineered islets embedded in ultra-soft hydrogel is reported for monitoring of bladder activity in overactive bladder (OAB) induced rat and anesthetized pig. The use of hydrogel yielded a much lower sensor modulus (1 kPa) compared to that of the bladder (300 kPa), while the strong adhesiveness of the hydrogel (adhesive strength: 260.86 N/m) allowed firm attachment onto the bladder. The change in resistance of printed liquid metal particle thin-film lines under strain were used to detect bladder inflation and deflation; due to the high stretchability and reliability of the lines, surface strains of 200% could be measured repeatedly. Au electrodes coated with Platinum black were used to detect electromyography (EMG). These electrodes were placed on structurally engineered rigid islets so that no interfacial fracture occurs under high strains associated with bladder expansion. On the OAB induced rat, stronger signals (change in resistance and EMG root-mean-square) were detected near intra-bladder pressure maxima, thus showing correlation to bladder activity. Moreover, using robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery, the sensor was placed onto the bladder of an anesthetized pig. Under voiding and filling, bladder strain and EMG were once again monitored. These results confirm that our proposed sensor is a highly feasible, clinically relevant implantable device for continuous monitoring OAB for diagnosis and treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number115060
JournalBiosensors and Bioelectronics
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Apr 1

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Jeongdo Ahn for surgical robot master design, Joonhwan Kim and Kwang-Soo Baek for assisting in robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. This research was supported by the Pioneer Research Center Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning ( 2022M3C1A3081294 ) and by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF- 2021M3H4A1A03049049 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Authors

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Electrochemistry


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