Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections in the forehead region should only target the frontalis. This study applied ultrasonography with the aim of providing guidelines for predicting the layered structure and soft-tissue thickness of the forehead. We performed ultrasound scanning at 7 facial landmarks in 40 Korean adults. Allowing for the error range, the minimum depth from the skin to exclude the muscle layer was 2.3 mm, and the maximum depth from the skin to include the muscle layer was 2.8 mm. Of the total 7 points from the skin to muscle surface, significant differences between the males and females were found in 6 points (p < 0.05). Clinicians can use ultrasonography to identify the structural layers of the scalp. Even if ultrasound-guided injections are not performed, it is possible to target only muscle layers in BoNT-A injections by maintaining a needle depth of around 2.5 mm.
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology|
|Publication status||Published - 2019 Oct|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Hwi Eun Hur (BA) from Davidson College for revising this paper. This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) (NRF-2017 R1 A2 B4003781).
The authors thank Hwi Eun Hur (BA) from Davidson College for revising this paper. This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government ( MSIP ) ( NRF-2017 R1 A2 B4003781 ).
© 2019 The Authors
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics