Ultrasonographic and three-dimensional analyses at the glabella and radix of the nose for botulinum neurotoxin injection procedures into the procerus muscle

Younghoon Cho, Hyung Jin Lee, Kang Woo Lee, Kyu Lim Lee, Jae Seung Kang, Hee Jin Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and identify the location of the intercanthal vein using ultrasonographic (US) imaging and the three-dimensional scanning method, which is needed to know to avoid side effects during BoNT injections. The morphology of the procerus was classified into two types based on the US images obtained at the glabella. The procerus was located deeper below the skin surface at the glabella than the sellion (3.8 ± 0.7 mm versus 2.7 ± 0.6 mm). The width of the procerus in US images increased from the sellion (10.9 ± 0.2 mm) to the glabella (14.5 ± 4.6 mm), whereas its thickness decreased (from 1.6 ± 0.6 mm to 1.1 ± 0.5 mm). The intercanthal vein was located 5.1 ± 4.0 mm superior to the sellion and 3.0 ± 0.6 mm below the skin's surface. The present findings provide anatomical knowledge as well as the reference location information for use when injecting BoNT into the procerus.

Original languageEnglish
Article number560
JournalToxins
Volume11
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Sep 24

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Neurotoxins
Nose
Muscle
Muscles
Injections
Veins
Skin
Rejuvenation
Three-Dimensional Imaging
Scanning
Imaging techniques

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

@article{0567d501e570486c8c6e43e9ec72ff79,
title = "Ultrasonographic and three-dimensional analyses at the glabella and radix of the nose for botulinum neurotoxin injection procedures into the procerus muscle",
abstract = "Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and identify the location of the intercanthal vein using ultrasonographic (US) imaging and the three-dimensional scanning method, which is needed to know to avoid side effects during BoNT injections. The morphology of the procerus was classified into two types based on the US images obtained at the glabella. The procerus was located deeper below the skin surface at the glabella than the sellion (3.8 ± 0.7 mm versus 2.7 ± 0.6 mm). The width of the procerus in US images increased from the sellion (10.9 ± 0.2 mm) to the glabella (14.5 ± 4.6 mm), whereas its thickness decreased (from 1.6 ± 0.6 mm to 1.1 ± 0.5 mm). The intercanthal vein was located 5.1 ± 4.0 mm superior to the sellion and 3.0 ± 0.6 mm below the skin's surface. The present findings provide anatomical knowledge as well as the reference location information for use when injecting BoNT into the procerus.",
author = "Younghoon Cho and Lee, {Hyung Jin} and Lee, {Kang Woo} and Lee, {Kyu Lim} and Kang, {Jae Seung} and Kim, {Hee Jin}",
year = "2019",
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Ultrasonographic and three-dimensional analyses at the glabella and radix of the nose for botulinum neurotoxin injection procedures into the procerus muscle. / Cho, Younghoon; Lee, Hyung Jin; Lee, Kang Woo; Lee, Kyu Lim; Kang, Jae Seung; Kim, Hee Jin.

In: Toxins, Vol. 11, No. 10, 560, 24.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Ultrasonographic and three-dimensional analyses at the glabella and radix of the nose for botulinum neurotoxin injection procedures into the procerus muscle

AU - Cho, Younghoon

AU - Lee, Hyung Jin

AU - Lee, Kang Woo

AU - Lee, Kyu Lim

AU - Kang, Jae Seung

AU - Kim, Hee Jin

PY - 2019/9/24

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AB - Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) injections are widely used for facial rejuvenation procedures, and the procerus muscle is a major target in cases of glabellar transverse lines or rhytids. Although there have been many cadaveric studies of the procerus, its depth and thickness have not been investigated thoroughly. The aim of this study was to measure the depth and thickness of the procerus and identify the location of the intercanthal vein using ultrasonographic (US) imaging and the three-dimensional scanning method, which is needed to know to avoid side effects during BoNT injections. The morphology of the procerus was classified into two types based on the US images obtained at the glabella. The procerus was located deeper below the skin surface at the glabella than the sellion (3.8 ± 0.7 mm versus 2.7 ± 0.6 mm). The width of the procerus in US images increased from the sellion (10.9 ± 0.2 mm) to the glabella (14.5 ± 4.6 mm), whereas its thickness decreased (from 1.6 ± 0.6 mm to 1.1 ± 0.5 mm). The intercanthal vein was located 5.1 ± 4.0 mm superior to the sellion and 3.0 ± 0.6 mm below the skin's surface. The present findings provide anatomical knowledge as well as the reference location information for use when injecting BoNT into the procerus.

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