Background: Filler injection into the glabella is well known to be a highly dangerous procedure due to the high risk of embolism and intravascular injection. Although it is conventional practice to insert the cannula into the middle of the forehead to perform injections into the glabella or radix, vascular structures can be observed in this region during anatomic dissection procedures. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize the blood vessels around the forehead midline in order to provide crucial anatomic information for ensuring the safety of noninvasive procedures involving the forehead and glabella. Methods: Ultrasonography image scanning was performed at the following 4 points on the forehead midline: trichion (P1), metopion (P2), halfway point between metopion and glabella (P3), and glabella (P4). The courses and locations of vessels were identified and classified according to their proximity to the forehead midline. Results: Vessels coursing within 0.75 cm either side of the forehead midline were found in 34% to 50% of individuals. Arteries running near the forehead midline tended to be dominant on the right side of the forehead except in the P4 area. About half of the individuals had vessels in the P4 area, of which 96.7% were veins. Conclusions: The present results indicate that there are superficial vessels running close to the midline of the forehead. This anatomic information can explain the higher incidence of vascular complications during conventional aesthetic procedures. To ensure safety, the cannula entry point or needle puncture point for glabella augmentation should be reconsidered.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) (Daejeon, South Korea), grant funded by the Korean government (MEST) (number NRF-2017R1A2B4003781). The funding sponsors had no role in the design of the study, in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript; and in the decision to publish the results.
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